Polish Language - basic grammar: Nouns
In this lesson you fill find some basic information on nouns in Polish.
In Polish there are no definite or indefinite articles. For example, in English we use articles 'the' and 'a/an'. This is not the case in Polish.
Polish nouns can be of masculine, feminine or neuter gender. For example:
ławka - bench - feminine
dziecko - child - neuter
ogórek - cucumber - masculine
In this Polish is similar to German. Unfortunately, like in German language, there are no strict rules to tell you the exact gender of every noun just by looking at it. However, there are some hints:
- In general, Polish nouns are usually feminine if ending with -a:
kobieta - woman
butelka - bottle
pocztówka - postcard
- On the other hand, they are usually neuter if they end with -o, -e, -um or -ę:
dziecko - child
pranie - laundry
kocię - kitten
muzeum - museum
- The rest of nouns are usually masculine. For example:
notes - notepad
długopis - pen
kabel - cable
laptop - laptop
Knowing the gender of a noun is very important, because it's strictly related to using adjectives correctly. For example, czerwony means 'red'. But it can only be used with masculine noun. This is how we use adjectives:
Hence, we would say:
czerwona kobieta - red woman
czerwona butelka - red bottle
czerwone kocię - red kitten
czerwony długopis - red pen
czerwony kabel - red cable
Now, all these nouns mentioned are singural. So how to create plural number of a noun?
Again, this is a bit complicated because there are no strict rules. So, unfortunately the best way is to memorize the plurar version of a noun while studying. Here are some examples:
There are also some irregular Polish nouns which are a bit different in plural:
Plus, there are nouns which occur only in plural, and do not have singular form:
nożyczki - scissors
spodnie - trousers
okulary - glasses
perfumy - perfume
drzwi - doors
One of the most confusing things while learning Polish are definitely seven cases which apply to nouns, pronouns and adjectives. What are they? Well, they do not occur in English as such, but let's compare these two sentences to get an idea:
I made chicken for
Zrobiłem kurczaka na obiad. (kurczak - chicken)
Have you noticed endings of nouns are different in each scenario? Polish language is much more complicated in this case than English, because you cannot just put a noun as it is in all sentences you create. However, this can be learnt.
The seven cases are:
1. Nominative (Mianownik)
Now, let's see how we can use word 'zupa' (soup) in all of those cases:1. It's a nice soup. - To dobra zupa.
2. There isn't any soup left. - Nie ma już zupy.
3. I looked closely at the soup. - Przyjrzałem się zupie.
4. I see soup on the table. - Widzę zupę na stole.
5. I have a bowl with soup. - Mam miskę z zup±.
6. We talked about the soup.- Rozmawiali¶my o zupie.
7. Soup! - Zupo! (Which doesn't really makes sense as this is like we were talking to the actual soup.)
Important notice, please read before using this website: By using this site you agree to cookies being placed on your computer. If you do not wish to accept cookies from this site please either disable cookies or refrain from using this site. More information on cookies HERE.